Background: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is a rare but life threatening complication in neurosurgical patients. Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSVE) is based on the detection of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in patient`s CSF samples. A low threshold for both investigations with CSF PCR and empirical treatment with intravenous acyclovir is warranted.
Methods and materials: In this case we discussed a 55- year-old man with HSVE after surgical resection of meningioma. We represent a rare case of HSV encephalitis. The appearance of a high grade fever (40°C) and altered consciousness and spastic quadriparesia complicated the post-operative course in a 55-year-old man who underwent surgical removal of a meningioma on the second postoperative day. Brain MRI detected brain abnormalities on the fourth day after onset of symptoms, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identification of HSV 1 DNA confirmed the diagnosis.
Result: A positive prognosis was achieved due to the decision to start specific, high-dose antiviral therapy based on clinical suspicion, before a firm diagnosis was established. . Treatment with acyclovir was maintained for 8 weeks and patient die after severe sepsis.
Conclusion: There are only few case reports of postoperative HSV1 encephalitis. These reports suggest that this rare postoperative complication is associated with a poor prognosis, with high mortality and morbidity. Neurosurgical interventions involving peripheral nerve root or ganglia have been reported to cause re-activation of cutaneous herpes simplex infection. Factors compromising the immune system may also increase susceptibility to herpes simplex infection.
Mohammad Samadian, Mehrdad Hosseinzadeh Bakhtevari and Omidvar Rezaei