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Elevated Serum MMP-9 and MMP/TIMP-1 Ratio in Patients with Migrainous Infarction and Hemiplegic Migraine

Introduction: We investigated serum matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) levels in patients with acute phase hemiplegic migraine and migrainous infarction.

Background: Migraine is a common disorder that is characterized by episodic headaches. Hemiplegic migraine and migrainous infarction are rare migraine-related conditions with unknown pathophysiology.

Methods and Findings: We evaluated serum MMP-9, TIMP-1, and the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in patients with migrainous infarction (patient 1), hemiplegic migraine (patient 2), cerebral infarction with other causes (group 3, n=4), and non-organic disease (group 4, n=5). Serum MMP-9 levels were significantly higher in patients 1 and 2 than in groups 3 and 4. The serum TIMP-1 level was significantly lower in patient 1 than in groups 3 and 4. MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios were higher in patients 1 and 2 than in groups 3 and 4.

Conclusion: MMP-9 levels and the MMP/TIMP-1 ratio may aid in the diagnosis of migraine, and therefore may provide a clue to the etiology of cerebral infarction.


Satoru Ikemoto, Ryuki Matsuura, Shin-Ichiro Hamano, Atsuro Daida, Jun Kubota, Yuko Hirata and Reiko Koichihara

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