Background: The human brain changes with response to various types of activities and experience through the reorganization of its neural connections. This phenomenon is called as neural plasticity. Studies over the past decade have indicated that the adult brain is structurally dynamic. Indeed, dendritic spines dynamically turn over in the adult brain, and learning of novel tasks is associated with further increases in spine turnover. The exercise training is an effective therapy for CNS dysfunctions like stroke, traumatic brain injuries etc. which has been applied to clinic. Traditionally, the exercise training has been considered to improve brain function only through enhancement, compensation, and replacement of the remaining function of nerve and muscle.
Objective: To investigate the evidence on effect of exercise on neural plasticity in CNS dysfunctions.
Method: A comprehensive search on PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, clinical keys database using keywords neural plasticity, exercise, strength training, aerobic exercise, physiotherapy by using Boolean AND. Randomized controlled trails, systematic reviews and meta-analysispublished since 2005 are reviewed.
Results: 24 studies identified through database searching. 15 studies are excluded due to duplicates, irrelevance, based on title and abstract, outcome diversity. 6 RCT, 3 systemic reviews are included. The result of this review provides evidence that exercise drives compensatory structural adaptation in functionally relevant subsets of neurons to enhance behavioral recovery and cognitive changes after brain insult and measurable functional level of the patient.
Conclusion: The result of this review provides evidence that exercise drives compensatory structural adaptation in functionally relevant subsets of neurons to enhance behavioral recovery and cognitive changes after brain insult and measurable functional level of the patient.
Nagarjuna Narayanasetti PT and Annie Thomas PT
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